Akko is a city in the northern coastal plain region of northern Israel at the northern extremity of Haifa Bay. The city occupies an important location, as it sits on the coast of the Mediterranean, linking the waterways and commercial activity with the Levant. Acre is one of the oldest continuously inhabited sites in the world.
Historically, it was a strategic coastal link to the Levant. In crusader times it was known as St. John d'Acre after the Knights Hospitaller of St. John order who had their headquarters there. Acre is the holiest city of the Bahá'í Faith. Acre is a mixed city, with 75% of the population being Jewish and 25% Arab.
Saint George Church
This Greek Orthodox Church was probably the first Christian house of worship built in Acre during the Turkish Period. The first evidence of the existence of a Greek Orthodox monastery and church in Acre dating back to the Ottoman Period is presumably that of Minurite monk Eugene Roger, who visited the city in 1631.
Thirty-five years later, physician Gabriel Bremond of Marseilles visited Acre. Bremond declared that the Greek Orthodox Church, which was once (1666) named after St. Nicholas and renovated by Facher El-Din, had become the most beautiful church in the Levant.
Saint John Curch
Saint John's Church, which currently stands next to Acre's lighthouse, belongs to the Latin community (the Franciscans).
It is unclear as to when the church was built, although several years ago, the year 1737 was found engraved in the northern wall of the building. The church was renovated in 1947 and now serves as the only church of Acre's Latin-Catholic community.
The Fraciscan Terra Santa Church
Acre's importance where the Franciscans are concerned lies in the fact that they believe that Saint Francis of Assisi – the founder of their order – visited the city in 1219-1220.
In 1217, Father Elia Da Cortona built Israel's first Franciscan monastery in Acre. When Acre fell to the Mamluks, the members of the order fled from the monastery.
According to the chronicles of the Franciscans, Facher El-Din II officially enabled them to settle in Acre and build a church and an inn there for their personal use. Based on records dating back to 1673, the church was named after Saint John the Baptist.
Acre sea wall
In 1750, Daher El-Omar, the ruler of Acre, utilized the remnants of the Crusader walls as a foundation for his walls. Two gates were set in the wall, the "land gate" in the eastern wall, and the "sea gate" in the southern wall. The walls were reinforced between 1775 and 1799 by Jezzar Pasha and survived Napoleon's siege.
A heavy land defense wall was built north and east to the city in 1800–1814 by Jezzar Pasha and his Jewish advisor Haim Farhi. It consists of a modern counter artillery fortification which includes a thick defensive wall, a dry moat, cannon outposts and three burges (large defensive towers). Since then, no major modifications have taken place. The sea wall, which remains mostly complete, is the original El-Omar's wall that was reinforced by Jezzar Pasha.
The Jezzar Pasha Mosque
The Mosque of Jezzar Pasha was built in 1781. Jezzar Pasha and his successor Suleiman Pasha, are both buried in a small graveyard adjacent to the mosque. In a shrine on the second level of the mosque, a single hair from the prophet Mohammed's beard is kept and shown on special ceremonial occasions.
Citadel of Acre
The current building which constitutes the citadel of Acre is an Ottoman fortification, built on the foundation of the Hospitallerian citadel. The citadel was part of the city's defensive formation, reinforcing the northern wall. During the 20th century the citadel was used mainly as a prison and as the site for a gallows.
Built in 1795 by Jezzar Pasha, Acre's hammam has a series of hot rooms and a hexagonal steam room with a marble fountain. It was used by the Irgun as a bridge to break into the citadel's prison. The bathhouse kept functioning until 1950.
Under the citadel and prison of Acre, archaeological excavations revealed a complex of halls, which was built and used by the Hospitallers Knights. This complex was a part of the Hospitallers' citadel, which was combined in the northern wall of Acre. The complex includes six semi-joined halls, one recently excavated large hall, a dungeon, a dining room and remains of an ancient Gothic church. Medieval European remains include the Church of Saint George and adjacent houses at the Genovese Square (called Kikar ha-Genovezim or Kikar Genoa in Hebrew). There were also residential quarters and marketplaces run by merchants from Pisa and Amalfi in Crusader and medieval Acre.
Bahai shrine in Acre, Bahji mansion
There are many Bahá'í holy places in and around Acre. They originate from Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Citadel during Ottoman Rule. The final years of Bahá'u'lláh's life were spent in the Mansion of Bahjí, just outside Acre, even though he was still formally a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire. Bahá'u'lláh died on 29 May 1892 in Bahjí, and his shrine is the most holy place for Bahá'ís — their Qiblih, the location they face when saying their daily prayers. It contains the remains of Bahá'u'lláh and is near the spot where he died in the Mansion of Bahjí. Other Bahá'í sites in Acre are the House of `Abbúd (where Bahá'u'lláh and his family resided) and the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá (where later 'Abdu'l-Bahá resided with his family), and the Garden of Ridván where he spent the end of his life. In 2008, the Bahai holy places in Acre and Haifa were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List.